Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.
This book is written for the intelligent student or lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who sees the chief objective of science as the production of gadgets; and for the person who views the scientists as some sort of magician. The book can be used to supplement a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or – independently of any course – simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do. It will give them an awareness and understanding of the relationship between science and our culture and an appreciation of the roles science may play in our culture. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.
We have tried to present in this book an accurate and up-to-date picture of the scientific community and the people who populate it. That population has in recent years come to comprise more and more women. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions. In discussing these changes and contribution, however, we are faced with a language that is implicitly sexist, one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals. To offset this built-in bias, we have adopted the policy of using plural nouns and pronouns whenever possible and, when absolutely necessary, alternating he and she. This policy is far form being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgment of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of the human race equally.
We have also tried to make the book entertaining as well as informative. Our approach is usually informal. We feel, as do many other scientists, that we shouldn’t take ourselves too seriously. As the reader may observe, we see science as a delightful pastime rather than as a grim and dreary way to earn a living.
1. According to the passage, ‘scientific subculture’ means
[A] cultural groups that are formed by scientists.
[B] people whose knowledge of science is very limited.
[C] the scientific community.
[D] people who make good contribution to science.
2. We need to know something about the structure and operation of science because
[A] it is not easy to understand the things that excite and frustrate scientists.
[B] Science affects almost every aspect of our life.
[C] Scientists live in a specific subculture.
[D] It is easier to understand general characteristics of science.
3. The book mentioned in this passage is written for readers who
[A] are intelligent college students and lay person who do not know much about science.
[B] are good at producing various gadgets.
[C] work in a storehouse of dried facts.
[D] want to have a superficial understanding of science.
4. According to this passage,
[A] English is a sexist language.
[B] only in the scientific world is the role of women increasing rapidly.
[C] women are making significant contributions to eliminating the inadequacy of our language.
[D] male nouns or pronouns should not be used to refer to scientists.
5. This passage most probably is
[A] a book review.
[B] the preface of a book.
[C] the postscript of a book.
[D] the concluding part of a book.
lay person 外行，门外汉，俗人
An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist.
We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitude and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are and what they do.
In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture.
This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions.
This policy is far from being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgement of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of human race equally.
1. C 科学社区。答案在第一段第二句，人们也该了解科学家生活在其中的亚文化群以及他们是什么样的人。第三段又讲到，有关科学社区的画面以及妇女对科学亚文化的贡献。可见科学社区即亚文化。 A. 科学家所组成种种文化群体。 B. 科学知识有限的一些人。 C. 对科学作出很大贡献的人。
2. B 因为科学几乎影响到我们生活的各个方面。文章开综明旨点出：科学是我们文化中的重要主题，由于它几乎涉及到我们生活的每一方面，有知识的人至少需要熟悉一些结构和作用。 A. 了解激发和挫伤科学家的事情可不太容易。（比较难） C. 科学家生活在特定的亚文化群中。D. 了解科学的一般特性比较容易。
3. A 不太了解科学的大学生或门外汉。第二段首句就点出了这本书为对科学一知半解的大学生和门外汉所写，为某些人，一直把科学看作干巴巴的事实堆砌的发霉的石屋的人；为那种把科学的主要目的视为生产小配件的人；为那些把科学视为某种魔术的人而写。这说明主要为A项人所写，对科学了解不多的大学生和普通人。 B. 善于生产各种小配件。 C. 在干巴巴的事实堆砌的石屋中工作。 D. 相对科学有肤浅了解的人。
4. D 不应当用阳性的名词和代词去指科学家。第三段集中讲了这本书提供精确而又现代的有关科学社区（社会）和居住在其中的人的画卷。近年来，越来越多的妇女包括进来，原因是许多妇女进入传统上为男人统治的领域，并作出巨大贡献，所以妇女在科学亚文化群中的增多并不是罕见的偶然事件，而是社会各部门明显趋势的组成部分。在讨论其变化和贡献时，我们面临着隐含性别歧视的语言――用阳性名词和代词来指未指定人物，为了消除这种偏颇，我们在可能和必要时采用了复数名词和代词来取代他或她。 A. 英语是一种性别语言。 B. 只有在科学领域中，妇女的作用增长很快。 C. 妇女在晓民我们语言中的不适当性作出了巨大的贡献。根据此题注释说明这三项都不对。英语不能说成是有性别的语言，其中虽有些词性表示男性或女性。文内明确指科学界妇女增多是整个社会的趋势的组成部分。由于妇女在科学界的贡献，所以不能再用阳性名词或代词去指科学界，并不是在消灭语言……
5. B 书的前言，见文章大意。 A. 书的评论。 C. 书跋、书的附录。 D. 书的结论部分。